Though facial cosmetic surgery patients usually say they’re satisfied with their results, certain patient characteristics are seen as negative predictors for satisfaction. While psychopathology such as body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and personality disorders are notorious, psychosocial and cultural factors are more difficult to distinguish.
With this in mind, a research team headed by Jasmijn M. Herruer, M.D., of Radboud University Medical Center in The Netherlands, undertook a systematic literature review with the goal of defining predictors (excluding BDD) of unsatisfactory outcomes after facial cosmetic surgery. The researchers also attempted to determine whether valid pre-operative assessment tools are available to determine those factors.
What They Found
The research team conducted an extensive search of the PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in the literature, including referenced studies. They analyzed a total of 27 articles: 11 prospective studies, two retrospective studies, one case study, eight reviews and five expert opinions. They identified the following factors, which they describe as “negative predictors” for patient satisfaction after facial cosmetic surgery: male sex, young age, unrealistic expectations, minimal deformities, demanding patients, “surgiholics,” relational or familial disturbances, obsessive personality and narcissistic personality.
“This review indicates the possible demographic and psychosocial predictors for an unsatisfactory outcome of facial cosmetic surgery,” the authors conclude. “A brief personality assessment tool that could be used to address predictors pre-operatively was not found. [We] suggest use of the Glasgow Benefit Inventory to assess patient satisfaction postoperatively. Further research is being undertaken to develop such an instrument.”
The study appears in the June issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.